C. Costs, Benefits, and Effectiveness: (continued)
Matching high school transcripts to the Youth Cohort of the National Longi-
tudinal Survey of Labor Market ExperiencestouseTnspecialanalyses is
an ongoing effort of the National Center for Research in Vocational Educa-
tion, Preliminary reports provide data on the work experiences of high
school graduates between the ages of 17 and 21 in May 1980.
The analyses classified students by categories based on the vocational
education courses cited on high school transcripts. Only students who had
taken no secondary vocational courses were classified as "nonvocational88.
Students who had completed at least some vocational courses were classified
in one of five categories of vocational enrollees depending upon the amount,
timing and degree of specialization. "Concentrators" are students who have
completed substantial vocational coursework.
Although similar jobs were held by students with few vocational credits and
those with none, stronger comparisons can be made by contrasting work expe-
riences of vocational concentrators with work experience of nonvocational
students. Among males, twice as many vocational concentrators (33%) as
nonvocational graduates (15%) worked in craft occupations. Only half as
many vocational concentrators worked in professional, technical, clerical,
or service jobs as nonvocational students.
Among females, 61 percent of vocational concentrators work in clerical
occupations, compared with 37 percent of nonvocational graduates. Nearly
20 percent of the female nonvocational graduates held professional jobs as
compared with only 2 percent of vocational concentrators. Greater percen-
tages of female nonvocational students than vocational concentrators worked
in sales and services jobs.
One analysis concluded that vocational concentrators tend to hold jobs for
a relatively longer time and tend to work in industries that pay well, but
do not tend to work in unionized jobs or enroll in postsecondary institutions
as often as others.
The National Acadeiny of Sciences (NAS) examined the role of vocational
education 1n terms of its overall contribution to economic development.
In a report titled Education for Tomorrow's Jobs, NAS found that the quality
of secondary programs varies widely and they cited comprehensive high school
vocational programs as most 1n need of reform, the report recommends
changes in pre-serv1ce and In-service training for teachers of vocational
education. "Requirements governing the recruitment, certification, pro-
motion, compensation and retention of vocational teachers are so well
defined that adaptation to new technologies 1s costly and slow. Also
problematic are rules governing the allocation of resources, the acquisi-
tion of equipment and use of facilities," the report states.Caseload